Open Journal Systems

Main socio-psychological effects of pandemic on individuals’ well-being and life satisfaction

Amina Omrane, Soumya Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti Das, Avik Chatterjee

Article ID: 1757
Vol 8, Issue 3, 2023, Article identifier:

VIEWS - 261 (Abstract) 131 (PDF)


In this era of uncertainty, the adverse impact of social ill-being brings forth dissatisfaction and discontentment in our life. Social peace gives us the required nourishment to yield a quality life. In this study, we made a modest attempt to assess to what extend the individuals’ life gets affected in these hours of post COVID-19 crisis. To understand the mental frame of individuals, we have adjudged the recourse to two key factors, i.e., digital illiteracy, communication crisis and social isolation, which might lead to dissatisfaction of life. Moreover, the present research assessed the degree of impact of social ill-being on the individuals’ life dissatisfaction. It gives us the provision to explore the mediating effect of higher stress on the association between social ill-being and life dissatisfaction. This honest attempt may help citizens and policymakers to get channelized, well-digitally equipped and prepared to come up with innovative solutions that serve to manage the curse of the COVID-19.


pandemic; social ill-being; stress; life dissatisfaction; digital illiteracy and communication crisis; social isolation

Full Text:



1. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020; 395(10229): 1054–1062. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

2. Gardner PJ, Moallef P. Psychological impact on SARS survivors: Critical review of the English language literature. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 2015; 56(1): 123–135. doi: 10.1037/a0037973

3. James PB, Wardle J, Steel A, Adams J. Post-Ebola psychosocial experiences and coping mechanisms among Ebola survivors: A systematic review. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2019; 24(6): 671–691. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13226

4. Ricci-Cabello I, Meneses-Echavez JF, Serrano-Ripoll MJ, et al. Impact of viral epidemic outbreaks on mental health of healthcare workers: A rapid systematic review. Available online: (accessed on 14 December 2022)

5. Wu P, Fang Y, Guan Z, et al. The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: Exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2009; 54(5): 302–311. doi: 10.1177/07067437090540050

6. Kim TJ, von demKnesebeck O. Perceived job insecurity, unemployment and depressive symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. International Archives of Occupational and Environment Health 2016; 89: 561–573. doi: 10.1007/s00420-015-1107-1

7. Holmes EA, O’Connor RC, Perry VH, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry 2020; 7(6): 547–560. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

8. Ma J, Batterham PJ, Calear AL, HanJ. A systematic review of the predictions of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior. Clinical Psychology Review 2016; 46: 34–45. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.008

9. Sostero M, Milasi S, Hurley J, et al. Teleworkability and the COVID-19 crisis: A new digital divide? In: JRC Working Papers Series on Labour, Education and Technology. European Commission; 2020.

10. Telework in the EU before and after the COVID-19: Where we were, where we head to. Available online: (accessed on 28 September 2022).

11. Saladino V, Algeri D, Auriemma V. The psychological and social impact of Covid-19: New perspectives of well-being. Frontiers in Psychology 2020; 11: 577684. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.577684

12. OECD. Productivity Gains from Teleworking in the Post COVID-19 Era : How Can Public Policies Make it Happen? OECD Publishing; 2020.

13. Available online: (accessed on 12 January 2023).

14. Marston HR, Ivan L, Fernández-Ardèvol M, et al. COVID-19: Technology, social connections, loneliness, and leisure activities: An international study protocol. Frontiers in Sociology 2020; 5: 574811. doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2020.574811

15. Russell DW. UCLA Loneliness Scale (version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment 1996; 66(1): 20–40. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2

16. Aich P, Omrane A, Bag S. Hindrances related to the Corona virus crisis (COVID-19) in the Tourism Sector in India. International Journal of Management Practice 2022; 15(4): 411–428. doi: 10.1504/IJMP.2022.124587

17. Omrane A, Bag S. Which strategies are appropriate for the fight against the worldwide coronavirus crisis? International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management 2021; 23(4): 416–430. doi: 10.1504/IJICBM.2021.117476

18. Li LZ, Wang S. Prevalence and predictors of general psychiatric disorders and loneliness during COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. Psychiatry Research 2020; 291: 113267. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113267

19. Karataş Z, Uzun K, Tagay Ö. Relationships between the life satisfaction, meaning in life, hope and COVID-19 fear for Turkish adults during the COVID-19 outbreak. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 633384. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.633384

20. Li J, Zhou L, Van Der Heijden B, et al. Socialisolation, loneliness and well-being: The impact of WeChat use intensity during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 707667. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.707667

21. Zavaleta D, Samuel K, Mills C. Social isolation: A conceptual and measurement proposal. In: OPHI Working Paper. Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI); 2014.

22. Dörner D, Güss CD. PSI: A computational architecture of cognition, motivation, and emotion. Review of General Psychology 2013; 17(3): 297–317. doi: 10.1037/a0032947

23. Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, et al. A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine 2001; 31(2): 189–195. doi: 10.1017/S0033291701003312

24. White R, Bebbington P, Pearson J, et al. The social context of insight in schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2000; 35(11): 500–507. doi: 10.1007/s001270050271

25. Mgutshini T. Risk factors for psychiatric re-hospitalization: An exploration. International Journal of Mental HealthNursing 2010; 19(4): 257–267. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0349.2009.00664.x

26. Clinton M, Lunney P, Edwards H, et al. Perceived social support and community adaptation in schizophrenia. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1998; 27(5): 955–965. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00573.x

27. Borge L, Martinsen EW, Ruud T, et al. Quality of life, loneliness, and social contact among long-term psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services 1999; 50(1): 81–84. doi: 10.1176/ps.50.1.81

28. Lauder W, Sharkey S, Mummery K. A community survey of loneliness. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2004; 46(1): 88–94. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2003.02968.x

29. Palumbo C, Volpe U, Matanov A, et al. Social networks of patients with psychosis: A systematic review. BMC Research Notes 2015; 8(1): 560. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1528-7

30. Cacioppo JT, Hughes ME, Waite LJ, et al. Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and aging 2006; 21(1): 140–151. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.21.1.140

31. Goldsmith SK, Pellmar TC, Kleinman AM, Bunney WE. Reducing Suicide: A National Imperative. National Academy Press; 2002.

32. Richman NE, Sokolove RL. The experience of aloneness, object representation, and evocative memory in borderline and neurotic patients. Psychoanalytic Psychololgy 1992; 9(1): 77–91. doi: 10.1037/h0079323

33. DeNiro DA. Perceived alienation in individuals with residual-type schizophrenia. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1995; 16(3): 185–200. doi: 10.3109/01612849509006934

34. Andersson L. Loneliness research and interventions: A review of the literature. Aging & Mental Health 1998; 2(4): 264–274. doi: 10.1080/13607869856506

35. Banerjee D, Rai M. Social isolation in COVID-19: The impact of loneliness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 2020; 66(6): 525–527. doi: 10.1177/0020764020922269

36. Gilster P. Digital Literacy. John Wiley &Sons; 1997.

37. Sen E. Teacher perceptions of digital literacy in an L2 classroom. Available online: (accessed on 27 September 2023).

38. Greene JA, Seung BY, Copeland DZ. Measuring critical components of digital literacy and their relationships with learning. Computers & Education 2014; 76: 55–69. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.03.008

39. Usher K, Bhullar N, Jackson D. Life in the pandemic: Social isolation and mental health. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2020; 29(15–16): 2756–2757. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15290

40. Dahlberg L. Loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aging & Mental Health 2021; 25(7): 1161–1164. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2021.1875195

41. Wang Y, Xu B, Zhao G, et al. Is quarantine related to immediate negative psychological consequences during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic? General Hospital Psychiatry 2011; 33(1): 75–77. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.11.001

42. Meier JV, Noel JA, Kaspar K. Alone together: Computer-mediated communication in leisure time during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 666655. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.666655

43. Dahlberg L, McKee KJ. Social exclusion and well-being among older adults in rural and urban areas. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2018; 79: 176–184. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2018.08.007

44. Park SG, Min KB, Chang SJ, et al. Job stress and depressive symptoms among Korean employees: The effects of culture on work. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 2009; 82(3): 397–405. doi: 10.1007/s00420-008-0347-8

45. Hawton A, Green C, Dickens A, et al. The impact of social isolation on the health status and health-related quality of life of older people. Quality of Life Research 2011; 20: 57–67. doi: 10.1007/s11136-010-9717-2

46. Mellor D, Stokes M, Firth L, et al. Need for belonging, relationship satisfaction, loneliness, and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences 2008; 45(3): 213–218. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.020

47. Nicholson NR. A review of social isolation: An important but under-assessed condition in older adults. The Journal of Primary Prevention 2012; 33(2–3): 137–152. doi: 10.1007/s10935-012-0271-2

48. Victor C, Scambler S, Bond J, Bowling A. Being alone in later life: Loneliness, social isolation and living alone. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology 2000; 10(4): 407–417. doi: 10.1017/S0959259800104101

49. Xia N, Li H. Loneliness, social isolation, and cardiovascular health. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2018; 28(9): 837–851. doi: 10.1089/ars.2017.7312

50. Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S. Social relationships and health: The toxic effects of perceived social isolation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2014; 8(2): 58–72. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12087

51. Coutin E, Knapp M. Social isolation, loneliness, and health in old age. Health Social Care in the Community 2017; 25(3): 799–812. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12311

52. Harasemiw O, Newall N, Mackenzie CS, et al. Is the association between social network types, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction mediated by the perceived availability of social support? A cross-sectional analysis using the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Aging & Mental Health 2019; 23(10): 1413–1422. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2018.1495176

53. Lee J, Cagle JG. Social exclusion factors influencing life satisfaction among older adults. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice 2018; 26(1): 35–50. doi: 10.1332/175982717X15127351091521

54. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet 2020; 395(10227): 912–920. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8

55. Rubin GJ, Wessely S. The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ 2020; 368: m313. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m313

56. Omrane A, Kammoun A, Seaman C. Entrepreneurial burnout: Causes, consequences and way out. FIIB Business Review 2018; 7(1): 28–42. doi: 10.1177/2319714518767805

57. Blackmore ER, Stansfeld SA, Weller I, et al. Major depressive episodes and work stress: Results from a national population survey. American Journal of Public Health 2007; 97(11): 2088–2093. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.104406

58. Niedhammer I, Chastang JF, David S, et al. Psychosocial work environment and mental health: Job-strain and effort-reward imbalance models in a context of major organizational changes. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 2006; 12(2): 111–119. doi: 10.1179/oeh.2006.12.2.111

59. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, LangAG. Statistical power analysesusing G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods 2009; 41(4): 1149–1160. doi: 10.3758/BRM.41.4.1149

60. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods 2007; 39(2): 175–191. doi: 10.3758/BF03193146

61. Hair JF, Howard MC, Christian N. Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. Journal of Business Research 2020; 109: 101–110. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.069

62. Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), 2nd ed. SAGE Publications; 2017.

63. Nitzl C, Roldan JL, Cepeda G. Mediationanalysis in partial least squares path modeling: Helping researchers discuss more sophisticated models. Industrial Management & Data Systems 2016; 116(9): 1849–1864. doi: 10.1108/IMDS-07-2015-0302

64. Richter NF, Cepeda CG, Roldán JL, Ringle CM. European management research using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): Editorial. European Management Journal 2016; 34(6): 589–597. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2014.12.001

65. Rigdon EE. Choosing PLS path modeling as analytical method in European management research: A realist perspective. European Management Journal 2016; 34(6): 598–605. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2016.05.006

66. Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. Gain more insight from your PLS-SEM results: The importance-performance map analysis. Industrial Management & Data Systems 2016; 116(9): 1865–1886. doi: 10.1108/IMDS-10-2015-0449

67. Ringle CM, Sarstedt M, Schlittgen R. Genetic algorithm segmentation in partial least squares structural equation modeling. OR Spectrum 2014; 36: 251–276. doi: 10.1007/s00291-013-0320-0

68. Norman CD, Skinner HA. eHealth literacy: Essential skills for consumer health in a networked world. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2006; 8(2): e9. doi: 10.2196/jmir.8.2.e9

69. Freeman D, Loe BS, Chadwick A, et al. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK: The Oxford coronavirus explanations, attitudes, and narratives survey (Oceans) II. Psychological Medicine 2020; 52(14): 3127–3141. doi: 10.1017/s0033291720005188

70. Ayman U, Kaya AK, Kuruç ÜK. The impact of digital communication and PR models on the sustainability of higher education during crises. Sustainability 2020; 12(20): 8295. doi: 10.3390/su12208295

71. Hughes ME, Waite LJ, Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT. A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys results from two population-based studies. Research on Aging 2004; 26(6): 655–672. doi: 10.1177/0164027504268574

72. Lait J, Wallace JE. Stress at work: A study of organizational-professional conflict and unmet expectations. Relations Industrielles 2002; 57(3): 463–490. doi: 10.7202/006886ar

73. Diener E. Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin 1984; 95(3): 542–575. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542

74. Samman E. Psychological and subjective well-being: A proposal for internationally comparable indicators. Oxford Development Studies 2007; 35(4): 459–486. doi: 10.1080/13600810701701939

75. Fisher GG, Bulger CA, Smith CS. Beyond work and family: A measure of work/nonwork interference and enhancement. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 2009; 14(4): 441–456. doi: 10.1037/a0016737

76. Diamantopoulos A. Formative indicators: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research 2008; 61(12): 1201–1202. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.008

77. Fornell CG, Larcker DF. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research 1981; 18(1): 39–50. doi: 10.1177/002224378101800104

78. Schuberth F, Henseler J, Dijkstra TK. Confirmatory composite analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 2018; 9: 2541. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02541

79. Yildirim C, Correia AP. Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior 2015; 49: 130–137. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.059

80. Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 2015; 43: 115–135. doi: 10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8

81. Gold AH, Malhotra A, Segars AH. Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems 2001; 18(1): 185–214. doi: 10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669

82. Cassel C, Hackl P, Westlund AH. Robustness of partial least-squares method for estimating latent variable quality structures. Journal of Applied Statistics 1999; 26(4): 435–446. doi: 10.1080/02664769922322

83. Raithel S, Sarstedt M, Scharf S, Schwaiger M. On the value relevance of customer satisfaction. Multiple drivers and multiple markets. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 2012; 40: 509–525. doi: 10.1007/s11747-011-0247-4

84. Rasoolimanesh SM, Jaafar M, Kock N, Ahmad AG. The effects of community factors on residents’ perceptions toward World Heritage Site inscription and sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 2017; 25(2): 198–216. doi: 10.1080/09669582.2016.1195836

85. Henseler J, Hubona G, Ray PA. Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: Updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems 2016; 116(1): 2–20. doi: 10.1108/IMDS-09-2015-0382

86. Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 1999; 6(1): 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

87. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.

88. Ostic D, Qalati SA, Barbosa B, et al. Effects of social media use on psychological well-being: A mediated model. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12: 678766. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.678766

(261 Abstract Views, 131 PDF Downloads)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Amina Omrane, Soumya Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti Das, Avik Chatterjee

License URL: